~ The Seven Churches Chart ~

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The Seven Churches Chart


Revelation 1:20

"The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches."


Acts of the Apostles 585

"The names of the seven churches are symbolic of the church in different periods of the Christian Era. The number 7 indicates completeness, and is symbolic of the fact that the messages extend to the end of time, while the symbols used reveal the condition of the church at different periods in the history of the world."


Name                Greek Meaning                             Condition of the Church              Approximate dates

Ephesus:          "Desirable" or "Primary"                Spiritual power.                                                    31-100 AD

Smyrna:           "Myrrh" (used for embalming)       Persecution.                                                          100-321 AD

Pergamos:        "Lifted Up" or "Elevated"              Compromise.                                                        321-538 AD

Thyatira:          "Sacrifice of Contrition"                 Apostasy.                                                             538-1798 AD

Sardis:              "The Remainder"                            Formalism.                                                       1550-1798 AD

Philadelphia:    "City of Brotherhood"                    Endurance.                                                       1798-1844 AD

Laodicea:         "People Under Judgment"              Lukewarm apathy.                                    1844-Jesus comes


Note the "cause and effect" relationship in the first four churches:


Spiritual power causes persecution.

             1.                     Persecution causes compromise.

                                             2.                    Compromise causes Apostasy.

                                                                          3.                             4.

Note the four "beasts" or Living Creatures:

1. Lion: bold and strong.  (Spiritual Power)

2. Calf: fatted for the market.  (Persecution)

3. Man: proud, haughty, independent, selfish, ambitious, covetous and worldly.  (Compromise)

4. Eagle: wings given to the True Church to fly away and hide for 1260 years.  (Apostasy)


Pergamos & Thyatira (Rev. 2:12-29) Pagan Rome changes to Papal Rome (Cause & Effect)


1. He Who now Letteth & That Wicked: 2 Thess. 2:5-8  

Remember ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things?  And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time.  For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he who now letteth (Pagan Rome) [will let], until he be taken out of the way.  And then shall that Wicked (Papal Thyatira) be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming.

2. Power, Seat & Authority: Rev. 13:2

And the beast (Papal Thyatira) which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as [the feet] of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon (Pagan Rome) gave him his power (497-508AD), and his seat (330AD), and great authority (533AD). 


3. A Host was Given Him: Dan. 8:11-12

Yea, he (Pagan Rome) magnified [himself] even to the prince of the host (crucified Jesus), and by him (Pagan Rome) the daily [sacrifice] (paganism) was taken away (lit. "lifted up" Heb. "ruwm"), and the place of his sanctuary (the city of Rome) was cast down (330AD).  And an host (Clovis' army) was given [him] (Papal Thyatira) (from 497 to 508AD) against the daily [sacrifice] (paganism) by reason of transgression (the union of Church & State), and it (Papal Thyatira) cast down the truth to the ground; and it practiced, and prospered (for 1260 years). 


4. The Daily Taken Away: Dan. 12:11

And from the time [that] the daily [sacrifice] (paganism) shall be taken away (lit. "removed" Heb. "sur" by Clovis' army by 508AD), and the abomination that maketh desolate (Papal Thyatira) set up (508AD), [there shall be] a thousand two hundred and ninety days (508-1798). 


5. They Place the Abomination that Maketh Desolate: Dan. 11:30-31

For the ships of Chittim (primarily Genseric's sea-attacks on Pagan Rome from 428 to 468AD, but all the first 4 Trumpets from 395 to 508 are implied) shall come against him (Pagan Rome): therefore he (Pagan Rome) shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant (Bible): so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant (Compromising Pergamos, 321-538).  And arms (Clovis, 496-508) shall stand on his (Papal Thyatira's) part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength (the city of Rome by wars), and shall take away (lit. "remove" Heb. "sur" by Clovis' army by 508AD) the daily [sacrifice] (paganism), and they shall place (by 538) the abomination that maketh desolate (Papal Thyatira). 


History Repeats in Dan. 11.

"We have no time to lose. Troublous times are before us. The world is stirred with the spirit of war. Soon the scenes of trouble spoken of in the prophecies will take place. The prophecy in the eleventh of Daniel has nearly reached its complete fulfillment. Much of the history that has taken place in fulfillment of this prophecy will be repeated (in Dan. 11:40-45). In the thirtieth verse a power is spoken of that ...[Verses 31-36, quoted.] 

"Scenes similar to those described in these words will take place."

Manuscript Releases, vol. 13, p. 394


James White comments:

"We have now traced the churches, the seals, and the beasts, or living beings, as far as they will compare as covering the same periods of time.  The seals are seven in number, the beasts but four.  And it may be well here to notice, that at the opening of the first, second, third and fourth seals the first, second, third and fourth beasts are heard to say "Come and see;" but when the fifth, sixth and seventh seals are opened, there is no such voice heard.  Neither do the last three churches, and the last three seals, compare, as covering the same periods of time, as the first four churches, and the first four seals do.  But, as we have shown, the churches, seals and beasts do agree, as covering the same periods of time for the space of nearly 1800 years, till we come down to a little more than half a century of the present time." Review & Herald, February 12, 1857



      1               2                      3                      4

Ephesus     Smyrna          Pergamos        Thyatira              Sardis

Power        Persecution   Compromise   Apostasy   Protestant Formalism

                                                                                  Name of life but really dead.


White         Red                Black              Dead         Souls cry, (in effect) "After waiting for 1260 years, these

                                                                                          Formal Protestants are just as dead as we are.

                                                                                                         How long do we have to wait?"


William Miller comments:

"The seven churches of Asia is a history of the church of Christ in her seven forms, in all her windings and turnings, in all her prosperity and adversity, from the days of the apostles down to the end of the world.  The seven seals are a history of the transactions of the powers and kings of the earth over the church, and God's protection of his people during the same time.  The seven trumpets are a history of seven peculiar and heavy judgments sent upon the earth, or Roman kingdom.  And the seven vials are the seven last plagues sent upon Papal Rome.  Mixed with these are many other events, woven in like tributary streams, and filling up the grand river of prophecy, until the whole ends us in the ocean of eternity.

"This, to me, is the plan of John's prophecy in the book of Revelation.  And the man who wishes to understand this book, must have a thorough knowledge of other parts of the word of God.  The figures and metaphors used in this prophecy, are not all explained in the same, but must be found in other prophets, and explained in other passages of Scripture.  Therefore it is evident that God has designed the study of the whole, even to obtain a clear knowledge of any part." Miller's Lectures, vol. 2, lecture 12, p. 178 (emphasis supplied)


 Uriah Smith comments:

"While the seven churches present the internal history of the church, the seven seals bring to view the great events of its external history." The Biblical Institute, p. 253


7 Churches ------------------------------ 7 Seals

Ephesus:          Spiritual power.       White Horse                                     31-100 AD

Smyrna:           Persecution.            Red Horse                                       100-321 AD

Pergamos:        Compromise.          Black Horse                                    321-538 AD

Thyatira:          Apostasy.                Pale Horse                                    538-1798 AD

Sardis:              Formalism.             Souls Cry for Justice                1550-1798 AD

Philadelphia:    Endurance.             End-time Signs                          1798-1844 AD

Laodicea:        Lukewarm apathy.      Silence in Heaven                      1844-Jesus comes.


The last three Seals differ from the first four as the last three Trumpets differ from the first four. 


7 Churches ------------------------------------------ 7 Seals

Ephesus:          Gospel in Spiritual Power.       White Horse                                     31-100 AD

Smyrna:           Gospel in Persecution.            Red Horse                                       100-321 AD

Pergamos:        Gospel in Compromise.          Black Horse                      321 AD-------->

                                                                                                          7 Trumpets

                                                                                                        1. Alaric:  395-410

                                                                                                        2. Genseric: 428-468

                                                                                                        3. Attila:     433-453

                                                                                                        4. Odoacer: 476-493

                                           (The first 4 Trumpets bring down Pagan Rome.)        >------508 AD


Thyatira:          Gospel in Apostasy.                Pale Horse       (Papal Rome ascends)        538----->


(Islam-a ascends to attack the nations helping Papal Rome)  5. Arabic Islam: "1st Woe" 1299-1449


Sardis:              Gospel in Formalism.             Souls Cry for Justice                                 1550--->

                                                                                  6. Turkish Islam: "2nd Woe" 1449--------1840

                 (Atheism "wounds" Papal Rome : both Thyatira & Sardis end)                           > 1798.

                 (Christian power restrains Islam-a)                                                        Islam descends 1840


Philadelphia:    Gospel in Endurance.             End-time Signs       (Millerites)        1798-1844 AD


("Prophetic Mirror" time: 1840-1844)

(First 6 Trumpets begin to repeat in reverse order within 7th Trumpet.)


Laodicea:         Gospel in Lukewarm Apathy.                                                                        1844---->


7th Trumpet begins: 2 World Wars & constant lesser wars. (4 Angels hold the 4-Winds)


Laodicean Protestants became the "False Prophet" when the USA sent an Ambassador to the Vatican: 1984

(Dan. 11:40)                                  "False Prophet" USA helps Papal Rome "overflow" Atheism in the USSR: 1989

(Islam-b ascends to attack the nation helping Papal Rome)               Arabic Islam: "3rd Woe" begins on 9/11/01

                (Christian power restrains Islam-b)                                                        Persian Gulf wars.

Papal Rome overflows the "Wall of Separation of Church & State" (in USA) "glorious land" at the Sunday Law.

Papal Rome overflows the "Wall of National Sovereignty" (in U.N.) "10 kings" (Rev. 17) become the healed "Global Rome".

Papal Rome Jezebel issues a Global Death Decree for Sabbath-keepers.          

Rev. 8:1 ........................................................................7th Seal, Silence in Heaven                      Jesus comes!


Stephen N. Haskell comments:

"It should be remembered that, as the experience of Ephesus, Smyrna and Pergamos, will be repeated in the last church before the second coming of Christ, so the history of Thyatira will have its counterpart in the last generation. The power of Jezebel will again be felt." The Seer of Patmos, p. 69

"The message to the Philadelphian period reaches to the end of time, and all who receive the crown will have passed through its experiences." ... "The messages to Sardis and to Philadelphia, separately cover a period extending to the second coming of Christ;" Ibid, p. 86

Commenting on the martyrs of the 5th Seal:

"Their numbers will be increased by those who are called to suffer a similar death in the period of time preceding the second coming of Christ." Ibid, p. 119

Therefore, since the 5th Church, Sardis, is "formal Protestantism" and extends to the second coming of Christ, the martyrs of the 5th Seal should also extend to the second coming of Christ (Rev. 20:4), along with the Sixth and Seventh Seals.

"There is no other time for preparation, for the Laodicean message covers ecclesiastical history to the very end of time".          Ibid, p. 90 (all emphases supplied)


 Ephesus Smyrna Pergamos                     Thyatira        Sardis        Philadelphia       Laodicea

31->       100->   321->                             538->            1550->          1798->                1844->

          7 Trumpets:  395 - 428 - 433 - 476     1299 - 1449                                            1844->




|.............Pagan Rome................|...Papal Rome...|..Protestantism..|...Millerism...|...Adventism...|

Ephesus     Smyrna     Pergamos        Thyatira             Sardis           Philadelphia       Laodicea

                                                              Jezebel-a                                                                       Jezebel-b

|...........Pagan Rome..................|...Papal Rome..............................................................|...Global Rome


Principle:  Jesus is "the First and the Last" and illustrates the end of a thing by its beginning.

Idea 1.

 If Jesus' second coming is during the time of Laodicea for the Church... 

Then Jesus' first coming was during the time of "Laodicea" for Ancient Israel.


If the end of Ancient Israel at Jesus' first coming was their time of "Laodicea", and it is parallel with the end of the Church at His second coming during the time of Laodicea, then the beginning of Ancient Israel in the time of Moses was parallel to the beginning of the Church at Ephesus, so Moses was "Ephesus" for Ancient Israel.


Ephesus         Smyrna          Pergamos        Thyatira        Sardis       Philadelphia          Laodicea

Moses                 2                      3                    4                   5                   6               Jesus comes

(Type of Christ)                                                                                                              (Antitype)


We see that "Laodicea" at the end of Ancient Israel overlapped with Ephesus at the beginning of the Church, so there must be an Ephesus "beginning" experience for the time of the Church's Laodicea too.


The Ephesus beginning of the Church was marked by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. The spiritual power of Pentecost was a type of the Latter Rain & Loud Cry at the end of the time of the Church, in the time of Laodicea, so Laodicea must have the Ephesus Pentecostal "White Horse" experience just before Jesus comes again.


Ephesus         Smyrna     Pergamos     Thyatira    Sardis    Philadelphia                  Laodicea

Pentecost          2                  3                  4              5                6               Latter Rain & Loud Cry

(Type)                                                                                                                        (Antitype)


Idea 2.

In the time of Ancient Israel's "Laodicea" or  7th Church, Jesus was baptized and He received the sign of God's voice and the seal of the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove.

The "sign and seal" of God's creative power is the Seventh-day Sabbath (Eze. 20:12, 20).


Creation Days

        1               2           3           4              5             6                              7

                                                                                      Sabbath as "sign & seal" of creative power.

Ancient Israel

        1               2             3         4             5              6                               7

   Moses ....................................................................... Jesus given "sign & seal" at baptism.



        1               2           3           4              5               6                              7

                                                                                         The saved who were never taught about

                                                                                   the Sabbath are "sealed" when the books are open.